More than two thirds of the world’s Plant Species are found in the Tropical Rainforests, Plants that provide shelter and food for Rainforest Animals as well as taking part in the gas exchanges which provide much of the world’s oxygen supply. Rainforest Plants live in a warm humid environment that allows an enormous variation rare in more temperate climates; some like the orchids have beautiful flowers adapted to attract the profusion of forest insects. Competition at ground level for light and food has lead to evolution of Plants which live on the branches of other Plants, or even strangle large trees to fight for survival. The aerial Plants often gather nourishment from the air itself using so-called ‘air roots’;. The humidity of the Rainforest encourages such adaptations which would be impossible in most temperate forests with their much drier conditions. The Amazon is home to as many as 80,000 plant species from which more than 40,000 species play a critical role in regulating the global climate and sustaining the local water cycle. But richness of species is one thing, and abundance another. While there may be many species in Tropical Rainforests, these often exist in low numbers over large areas.
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Plant and Trees Biodiversity: Information and Facts.
Amazon rainforest plants and trees biodiversity, Book an ecotour/ Identifying Plants and Trees in the Rainforest- is a job fit for generations upon generations of botanists. They have done an amazing job of classifying as many as 4,000 species of vascular Plants, but there is probably much more. In any given hectare of forest, over 650 trees can be found. That is more than the entire United States of America. The amazing variety says a lot about how different Tropical Rainforests are from other kinds of forests in the world. Populations of different things are smaller, while in other types of forests, for example in Europe or the United States, populations of the same things are larger, so to speak. The most common types of vegetation found in the Rainforest, which consists of hilly forests that are never flooded by rainfall or by the water level of the rivers. The soil is red or yellow clay. The average height of the forest is from 25 to 30m, with some trees climbing to over 50m high, with a dense undergrowth covered in vines and epiphytes. This forest formation shelters a great diversity of plants, especially tall trees. In the Yasuni National Park for example a team of botanists recorded 650 tree species in one hectare. Some of the most common terra-firm tree species are Chambira palm (Astrocaryum chambira) its fibres are used to make hammocks and “shigra” bags, a tree of the mimosa family (Parkia multijuga), which is known as the sleeper, as its feather-shaped leaves close when touched, a non-edible Cacao species Theobroma suincanun and the enormous emergent trees known as Cedrelinga catenaeformis. Some of the Napo Indigenous Groups call this type of forest, “Urcu”, which means “Hill” in their native Quichua. The wealth of species in this type of vegetation is less, between 149-417 species per hectare, but on average in the largest trees the structure of the forest is in layers with a great development in the forest floor layer, some of the most common species in the “pambas” are. The legendary Amazonian Ceiba, Ceiba pentandra that reaches heights of 60m, long-leafed heliconias, Heliconia sp. which is a wild and distant relative of the banana, whose bright red and orange colors attract hummingbirds Guarumos, Cecropia sp.: fast-growing pioneer trees that colonize the forest clearings, the Inga trees, Inga sp., belonging to the bean family the Capirona tree Calycophyllum spruceanum whose constantly-shedding red bark inhibits the growth of epiphytes, and the spiny-trunked palms Bactiris sp. and astrocaryum murumu, their nutritious seeds attract fish that feed on seeds. Morete Swamps and Palm swamplands are permanently flooded lowlands either by rainfall or rivers on which a specific palm named the Morete, Maurtia flexuosa, grows. The Quichua people of the Napo call this kind of swamp “muriti turu”. The soil in these areas is very humid, black in color, and acidic. Under these extreme conditions, very few species other than the Morete palm are able to establish themselves. Another type of swamp is made up of a mixture of palm trees and trees. This swamp is temporarily flooded. The soils in these areas are black, acidic, very humid, and not apt for agriculture. Some of the most common types of trees found in this type of forest are: the Real Scheelea Palm that provides material for the construction of the roofs of native houses, and the small, colonizing and spiny Tagua palm, Bactris. Usually, palm swamps do not have multiple layers of vegetation. The palms spread out, presenting little undergrowth with less species and less individual vegetation. +Book an Ecotour now+
AAmazon wildlife plants; fly catchers, book an ecotour now The plant defence systems: It is in the Plants best interests to be tasteless, difficult to eat or just plain poisonous. So some Plants have developed tough leaves, resins or latex outer coats that make them tough and able to resist many predators. Other Plants produce leaves that are nutritionally poor, so insects have to invest a lot of time and effort in eating, which is not a worthwhile strategy for any species. In some places, nutrient-rich clays are present and hence, Plants are less vulnerable to insect damage. Why is that? Take, for example, the western Amazon Basin, where rich soils cover 50-75 % of the land within about 500 km of the Andes Mountains. Plants use the available nutrients to grow back plant matter when they have been attacked by predators – and are under less pressure to evolve more efficient defence systems. Because most Rainforest insects feed on Plants, these have had to evolve survival abilities to defend themselves. Such techniques involve secreting toxic compounds that will repel the attackers … who in turn evolve abilities to exploit other weak points in the plant. +Book an Ecotour now+
Amazon air plant,epiphytes: flora biodiversity, book an ecotour now Epiphytes: Some Plants have evolved to the point that they simply do not need to grow on the forest floor – instead, they live on other Plants. Such Plants are called epiphytes, and in lowland Tropical Rainforests they may represent up to one-fourth of all Plant Species. Epiphytes encompass a wide range of Plants: some ferns, orchids, cacti and mosses have the ability to live virtually in mid-air. They trap the little soil they need, which is carried by the wind, and this helps them develop roots and a litter base on tree branches.
Bromeliads: In addition to their terrestrial forms, bromeliads also occur as epiphytes in Rainforests, where they accumulate rainfall water and detritus in their cup-like structures. Tree frogs, snails and other species have evolved to complete part of their development in these structures, which afford them the perfect place at a vulnerable stage in their development. As many as 250 tree frogs, snails, and other species are known to use bromeliads for such purposes. Other plants that are common both as creepers and epiphytes in the Amazon are the aroids, which include philodendrons. These Plants begin life on the ground and grow as a tendril that goes up tree trunks and attaches to them by aerial roots. They eventually lose their ground roots and become climbing epiphytes. +Book an Ecotour now+